Pregnancy comes with its own share of uncertainties and complications. Women go through various levels of physical and emotional stress. In most cases things are good because the uterus is healthy and formed normally. Uterus is one of the most important organs in a woman’s body because it is the uterus, tucked away in the pelvis, which helps develops a baby during pregnancy.
The uterus usually forms at approximately 5 weeks of gestation. It starts out near the kidney and forms two horn like structures. These move down towards the pelvic region and fuse into one. The area of fusion is called Septum, which divides the two. It is reabsorbed to form an intrauterine cavity which is normal. It is hollow with thick muscular walls. But in a few cases the uterus might not be formed in the above manner. It usually forms a heart like shape and is then called a Bicornuate uterus.
Symptoms of Bicornuate Uterus:
Every woman is shaped differently and the experience of every pregnancy is unique. In the same way the uterus could also be shaped differently. Some of the common symptoms of a bicornuate uterus are:
- No menstrual cycle at all.
- Severe pain during menstrual cycles: You may have severe pain and discomfort during the monthly cycles.
- Pain in the abdominal or pelvic region.
- Pain and discomfort during ovulation and also during intercourse.
- Difficulty in conceiving. Due to all the discomfort during menstruation, there will be difficulty getting pregnant.
- Repeated miscarriages.
If the above symptoms are noticed, it is better to get yourself checked by a doctor for a bicornuate uterus.
Causes of Bicornuate Uterus:
A bicornuate uterus is caused because the fallopian tubes and the mullerian ducts, which form the ovaries, have not fused properly. This causes the top part of the uterus to fold inwards and the bottom part appears normal. The uterus does not get formed properly and looks heart shaped. This abnormal shape of a uterus is most of the time detected during a pregnancy.
It could also be caused in the first few months of pregnancy because of the following reasons:
- Intake of drugs or alcohol.
- Vitamin deficiency.
- Psychological stress during pregnancy.
- Diabetes, thyroid issues or heart related problems.
Complications of Bicornuate Uterus:
Women do not even realise that they have a bicornuate uterus till they get pregnant. The misshapen uterus does not signify infertility but there could be complications in a pregnancy. It could become difficult getting pregnant in the first place. If you become pregnant, there could be complications. The severity of the complications will depend on the severity of the malformation of the uterus.
- Risk conceiving: Usually women with a bicornuate uterus have difficulty in conceiving.
- Miscarriage: In cases where women are successful in conceiving, there is a big risk of miscarriage. This is because there is not enough room for the baby to grow. A normal uterus expands to accommodate a growing baby, but in this case, the uterus cannot expand enough.
- Preterm delivery: There are chances that the baby could be delivered prematurely.
- Breech baby: The baby could be breech because it will not have enough room to fit comfortably in a head down position.
- The placenta could be trapped or retained inside.
- The baby could have birth defects as the misshapen uterus might not allow the baby to grow normally. There is also a risk that the baby might not be able to survive after birth.
- Spontaneous abortion: There could be a spontaneous abortion.
- C-section: In most cases where there is a bicornuate uterus the doctors will suggest a C section delivery so as to minimise difficulties of vaginal delivery.
Treatment for Bicornuate Uterus:
If a woman is diagnosed with a bicornuate uterus, the doctor will advise on under going reconstructive surgery. This is also called Metroplasty. The doctor will make an incision which will help separate the cavity in the uterus. After that, a vertical incision is made and then closed like a C section procedure. It is important to wait for at least three months after the procedure to conceive. The body needs this time to heal well and get back to its normal state. If this care is not taken, it could lead to internal bleeding and other complications.
Women with this complication of a misshapen uterus go through a lot of emotional stress. It is important to remember that you have no control over it as this has happened even before you were born. If diagnosed for a bicornuate uterus, it is best to keep calm and consult a doctor and do what is needed to correct it.