Scans in the course of pregnancy are significant. These scans are scheduled during pregnancy in order to check for the possible complications. Here we are discussing a scan which is scheduled during the second trimester of pregnancy and holds a lot of significance– the anomaly scan.
Scan during pregnancy

What Is An Anomaly Scan?

This is a detailed scan done at 18-23 weeks during which every part of the fetus is inspected to check whether the child is growing normally. Unique consideration is paid to the brain, face, arms, spine, heart, tummy, bowels, legs, and kidneys.
On the off chance that any variations from the norm are identified, the importance of the findings are discussed with the parents, and the results are forwarded to a senior fetal medical consultant for further guidance.

Why Do I Need An Anomaly Scan?

Though most of the babies are born normal, all women, whatever their age, have a little risk of delivering an infant with some physical and mental abnormalities. Many of such abnormalities can be ruled out or found out with a fetal anomaly scan.

Why Am I Asked To Repeat My Anomaly Scan After Two Weeks?

15% of anomaly scans are repeated. Most events that called for a repeat of anomaly scan are not consequential. The most common reason is that the person performing anomaly scan has not seen all that he or she needs to see. This might be on the grounds that your kid is not lying in the right position, or that you are moderately overweight, in which event, the sonographer will not be able to look through the all the details he ought to.Thus, he will decide to get the scan again after waiting for two more weeks. If there is something to worry about, he will tell you straight out.

What Does The Anomaly Scan Show?

During the anomaly scan doctor will examine the baby’s:

  1. Head: During this period of gestation, severe issues with the brain (which are really rare) can be determined through anomaly scan
  2. Face: Doctor will check for any abnormalities in the appearance of the face of the fetus, which is clearly visible during anomaly scan
  3. Spine: Spine of the fetus, both lengthwise and in cross section are examined
  4. Heart: The four chambers (two auricle and two ventricles), major blood vessels, and valves are clearly visible and thoroughly examined during an anomaly scan
  5. Abdominal wall: The doctor will look into the abdominal wall of the fetus closely during anomaly scan for any abdominal wall defects
  6. Stomach: There will be some black bubbles in the anomaly scan inside the stomach. They’re nothing to worry about, as this is some amniotic fluid drunk by the fetus
  7. Kidney: The doctor confirms that the baby has two kidneys. He will also confirm that the urine is passing well to the bladder. Observing filling and emptying the bladder is easy to watch through the anomaly scan, as the little one passes urine every 30 minutes during this period
  8. Limbs: Hand, arms, legs, and feet are thoroughly examined during an anomaly scan
  9. Placenta: Position of the placenta is checked during anomaly scan
  10. Umbilical cord: The blood vessels in the umbilical cord are visible on an anomaly scan. Thus, the doctor can make certain that enough blood is flowing uninterruptedly through it
  11. Amniotic fluid: For the baby to move in the womb, the doctor will check whether there is enough amniotic fluid

Measurements That Are Taken During An Anomaly Scan

During anomaly scan doctor will evaluatethe baby’s biometric parameters to assess the fetal size, like:

  • Abdominal circumference
  • Head circumference
  • Length of femur or thigh bone
  • Length of humerus or arm bone

pregnancy ultrasound scan

What Abnormalities Can Be Detected In An Anomaly Scan?

  1. Head:
    • Anencephaly: Anencephaly is a condition in which the top of the head of the fetus is absent. 99% of such issues can be identified through an anomaly scan
    • Hydrocephalus: It is a condition in which excess fluid is found within the brain of the fetus. Only 60% of hydrocephalus can be identified during this time of gestation, as, hydrocephalus can happen in later in the course of pregnancy or even after delivery
  2. Face:
    • Cleft lip: 75% of the cleft lip can be picked up in an anomaly scan. However, cleft palate is rarely found through anomaly scan because the palate is present inside the baby’s mouth and very hard to pick up
  3. Spine:
    • Spina bifida: Also called a neural tube defect, spina bifida happens when the bones of the spine (vertebrae) don’t cover a part of the baby’s spinal cord. This will result in opened spinal cord
    • If the skin does not cover the spine at the back. 90% of these defects can be detected during an anomaly scan
  4. Heart:
    • Your baby’s heart comprises of 4 chambers, two in the top and two in the bottom. During an anomaly scan all the 4 chambers should be equal in size
    • The valves should be opening and closing with every heartbeat
    • Any deviation from these conditions indicates the chances of major congenital heart issues. 60% of issues related to the heart can be determined through anomaly scan during this phase of gestation
  5. Abdominal wall: If the abdominal wall does not properly cover all the internal organs in the abdomen, it can be detected during an anomaly scan. There are 90% chances of detecting if the baby has any of the following abdominal wall defects:
    • Exomphalos: Though intestine and internal organs begin to develop inside the umbilical cord during the initial stage of pregnancy, they ought to move inside the abdomen a few weeks later (obviously before the 2nd trimester). Exomphalos is a condition in which some of the internal organs remain inside the umbilical cord outside the abdomen
    • Gastroschisis: A condition in which, the intestine, and some of the internal organs protrude through a hole (depending on the size) near the point where the umbilical cord meets the baby’s tummy (belly button)
  6. Kidney: Renal abnormalities are most commonly found congenital anomalies. 85% such abnormalities can be picked out during anomaly scan.
    • Unilateral renal agenesis: This is a condition characterized by complete absence of one kidney
    • Bilateral renal agenesis: This is a condition characterized by complete absence of both kidneys
    • Kidney dysplasia: Kidney dysplasia is a condition in which either one or both of the fetal kidneys do not develop normally, though the condition occurs with only one kidney. If only one of your baby’s kidney’s are working, the baby can grow normally though future health problems cannot be ruled out. In most cases, a pregnancy may not complete its time if a baby has kidney dysplasia that affects both kidneys. And if the pregnancy is carried to term, the baby will require dialysis and kidney transplant very early in their life
    • Duplex kidney system: Two ureter tubes are present rather than the normal single ureter tube for each kidney in this condition.
  7. Limbs: Missing or abnormal limbs can be picked out in an anomaly scan
  8. Placenta: Any complication due to the position of the placenta can be found out in an anomaly scan
  9. Amniotic fluid: Excess or deficiency of amniotic fluid can be detected during the anomaly scan
  10. Diaphragmatic hernia: A condition occurs when the diaphragm does not form properly. The diaphragm is a thin sheet of muscle separating the chest from the abdomen. In a diaphragmatic hernia, due to malformation of the diaphragm, a hole appears in the diaphragm.
    This can be detected in anomaly scan

What If Some Issues Are Found In My Anomaly Scan?

On the off chance that the sonographer recognizes any issues, you will directed to consult a medical specialist in a couple of days. You will be examined again, and it will be seen whether your infant can be dealt with inside the womb or that the baby will require treatment soon after birth. Sometimes, you might be given the choice to end your pregnancy. You will be given advice and support when settling on this massively troublesome choice.

Is Anomaly Scan 100% Accurate?

Regardless of the fact that your result is normal, there is a little risk that your child will even now have an issue. A few conditions, including certain heart issues and bowel blocks, may not be discovered until later in your pregnancy. Therefore, despite the fact that having your anomaly scan will help you rule out many defects, it still cannot guarantee 100 % accuracy.

How Much Does An Anomaly Scan Cost?

The costs of anomaly scan vary across different places in India. Anyhow, mostly the charge comes some were between 1500 to 3000 INR.