Ages and Stages of Child Development

4 min read

Written by Pradeep


Ages and Stages is a terminology that largely refers to a sketch that occurs in the human growth and development time period. In every stage, the growth and progress happen in the main spheres which include the physical, academic, language and social connectivity – The aim is to assist the parents and even help them comprehend of the child mental and physical psychology at each phase of the child development from a new-born baby to a teenager in order to provide them the required support and to keep motivating them so that these phases can pass smoothly and the child learns and evolves with them more confidently.

What Is Child Development?

The term Child development denotes to a process in which the human beings usually develop and through which human beings typically grow and age up right from the infant phase through the adulthood phase. There are numerous viewpoints of growth and development that are calculated inclusive of the growth of the body, the mental growth, and the social growth as well. Child development emphasizes on all the sort of variations that happen in the maturity phase right from birth till they are about 18 years. 

What are the different stages of Child development?

The stages of the child development are the theoretic indicators of the growth and progress of a child. Every child is different so will reach the milestones at different times due to a difference of mind, interest, and inclination. The child’s first few initial years are very crucial as they truly frame the personality of the child. Children grow in a range that gets influenced by many factors like:

  • Behaviour and attitude of parents
  • Siblings, and friends
  • Effect of technology
  • Surroundings and environment.

Initial growth and progress of a child are quintessential for a complete and dynamic life. The speedy growth of the brain of the child starts shaping in the pre-natal stages and continues after birth as well.

New-born (0 to 1 Month)

During the time of the birth of the baby till about 1 months, the new born baby will display actions which are reflex action and a reaction to an external stimulus. Some of them being, a new born baby opening the mouth when the baby is patted on cheek etc.  The baby at this stage has a very short vision. Some activities being:

  • Recognizing very few sounds or smells
  • See only those who are quite close, like the parents or caretakers face
  • Cry or smile for indicating his needs.

Babies (1 to 12 Months)

The time between one to 12 months, is a time where the infant will show new growth and progress skills. A baby from three-to-six-month-old will be able to

  • Head control
  • Play using both hands
  • Start sitting without support
  • Response to name calling
  • Chattering by six to nine months
  • Crawling by nine to 12 months
  • Make efforts to stand but with support
  • Picking toys and other objects with a strong hold 

Toddlers (13 to 24 Months)

The children in between one to about 2 years are referred as toddlers. The toddler’s love to follow routines as it gives them a sense of trust and comfort. Even though the toddlers are quite clumsy at times as they are still in the learning phase, they

  • Can still walk with a bit of help
  • Try going up on a staircase
  • Start jumping at one position
  • Try holding a crayon
  • Make a circle even if not perfect
  • Start enjoying playing by making towers
  • Understand and follow simple directions
  • Using very short sentences while they interact.

Pre-schoolers (2 to 4 Years)

The development of pre-schoolers starts around 3 to 5 years. This is mostly the time when the kids even start going to preschools in playgroups and nursery to enhance their social skills as well as learning a bit by play themes, rhymes, songs and dance. They are made to do activities which refine their motor skills making them more confident.

  • Skills like opening and closing the door continuously
  • Throwing and scattering toys
  • Skipping and hopping
  • Is able to take care of his toilet needs
  • Dress and undress as well
  • Interact with long hours of conversation.

School Age Children (5 to 8 Years)

This stage is for kids between 6-12 years. At this stage, kids are more confident, responsible and independent as well.

  • They have great motor skills
  • Start developing the secondary sexual features
  • Changes in the body and mind
  • Stress levels are high as the pressure builds both at home and school.
  • Friends and peer interactions become important.
  • They now want to play with members of the same sex
  • Role modeling to be like father or mother also starts now
  • A change of interest in food, clothes etc. 

Tweens (9 to 12 Years)

Pre-teens is  a period from 9 to 12 years, a time when many changes happen occur:

  • A spurt in growth and adequate weight gain
  • A time when they enter puberty
  • Genitals start maturing
  • Body will start changing
  • Mood swings
  • Irritation
  • The voice becomes deep

Teenagers (13 to 18 Years)

The age between 13-18 years is that of teens, the toughest phase for both the teens and the parents, as they exhibit physical, intellectual, logical and sexual changes. This is characterized by few points as:

  • Girls start maturing faster, physically than boys.
  • Teenagers start changing their distinctiveness and even their attitude and ideas.
  • They are conscious about their looks, their careers.
  • Complaints about food and taste occur at this stage.
  • The teenagers start developing an interest in the opposite sex and look forward spending more time with friends than family.

Thus, it can be said that all the ages and stages of the child development are a big challenge and it is important that the parents understand and listen to their kids, offer them their time and even teach the importance of being successful and having value in place. No wonder it is said: “Raising kids is not easy”.


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