The period in a month when the female ovaries release a mature egg ready for fertilization is known as ovulation. During every menstrual cycle, there are numerous ovarian follicles that mature under the influence of hormones. Generally, there is development of only one follicle, which produces an egg that shall be released and can be fertilized. There is increased secretion of hormones which stimulates the release of mature egg from its follicle. Ovulation is generally experienced once a month, till menopause by every woman, though there are a few experiencing irregular ovulation or no ovulation.
Age of a female is an important factor for ovulation. There is a direct link between the two. With increasing age of a female, her ovulation and fertility both are affected. A woman is born with a huge number of eggs in her ovaries which she shall release during her menstrual periods. Egg lies in a protective capsule known as follicle, which is located within the ovaries. With every menstrual cycle there is a natural loss of eggs thus reducing the ovarian reserve. Unlike constant sperm production in males, there is no formation of new, fresh and healthy eggs in women. Hence, with increasing age there is reduction in the number of eggs thereby affecting ovulation.
As age increases, the eggs age, and there is decline in their quality and quantity- due to the decreased ovarian reserve linked with progressing age. As the age advances, eggs lose their capability to fertilize and implant adequately. With increasing age, there are few eggs remaining in the ovaries of a woman. The ovaries produce reduced oestrogen and progesterone, resulting in reduced ovulation.
With increasing age and as you approach menopause, there is a reduced response of the ovaries to the hormones which are responsible for ovulation. The reproductive capability in a woman reduces much before menopause, producing reduced number of mature and healthy eggs. Diminished ovarian reserve due to increasing age affects ovulation. Reduction in ovulation leads to difficulty in conception. Hence, as the age of the female advances there are reduced chances of conception and increased chances of miscarriage and complications in pregnancy and childbirth. Fertility is dependent on ovulation which is dependent on the age of the female.
Thus, the age of a female has an important role in ovulation and fertility.