Anemia in Children: Types, Causes & Treatment

4 min read

Anemia in children occurs when the required amount of red blood cells in the body gets reduced and is below what is considered normal numbers for your child’s age. Anemia is frequently a symptom of a disease rather than a disease itself. If your kid contracts Anaemia, they will more often than not appear pale. The child also tends to become grumpy, and often feels tired, or powerless. Read on to know everything about anemia in children.


Causes of Anemia in Children:

Anemia in children can be caused by three main reasons:

  • Loss of RBCs:

As in loss of blood during an accident, heavy menstrual bleeding, etc.

  • Failure to Make Sufficient RBCs:

This can occur if your child does not have sufficient iron or other vital nutrients like vitamin C in his/her eating regimen.

  • Destruction of RBCs:

This sort of anemia happens if your kid has a hidden illness or has acquired an RBC disorder.

kid having headache

What are the Symptoms of Anemia in Children?

Some common anemia symptoms in children comprise of:

  • Easy weariness and lack of energy
  • Unusually quick heartbeat, especially while doing any activity
  • Difficulty in breathing and headache, especially while working out
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Feeling like you’ll faint
  • Paleness
  • Cramps in legs
  • Sleeplessness

Types of Anemia in Children:

  • Iron Deficiency Anemia:

This happens when the concentration of iron in the blood is very low.

  • Megaloblastic Anemia:

If the nutrient B-12 or folic acid is absent in the body.

  • Hemolytic Anemia:

This happens when RBCs in the blood are destroyed.

  • Sickle Cell Anemia:

It is an inherited sort of iron deficiency that appears in the form of strangely shaped RBCs. It can also be described as a kind of hemoglobinopathy.

  • Thalassemia:

It is another type of inherited anemia with unusual RBCs.

  • Aplastic Anemia:

This happens when the bone marrow fails to produce blood cells.

symptoms of Anemia

Symptoms of Different Types of Anemia in Children:

Different kinds of anemia in children show their presence by various symptoms. Some of these signs of anemia in children are given below:

Iron Deficiency Anemia:

Iron deficiency in children is one of the significant causes of anemia in children. Kids suffering from an iron inadequacy may encounter the following symptoms:

  • A want for unusual things such as dirt, ice, or paper
  • An upward curve in the nails
  • Soreness in mouth
  • Chapped edges of the lips

Megaloblastic Anemia:

Children who suffer from megaloblastic anemia may have the following symptoms:

  • A shivering, tingling sensation in the feet or hands
  • Losing the feeling of touch
  • Instability and trouble while walking
  • Heavy-handedness and firmness of the legs and arms

Hemolytic Anemia:

Hemolytic anemia caused by the constant destruction of RBCs may incorporate the following symptoms:

  • Jaundice, i.e., yellow eyes and skin
  • Earthy colored or red urine
  • Ulcers on legs
  • Marks of gallstones

Sickle Cell Anemia:

Symptoms of sickle cell anemia in children may include:

  • Weariness
  • Sensitivity to infections
  • Deferred development and growth in kids
  • Episodes of sharp pain, particularly in the abdomen, joints, and limbs

Aplastic Anemia:

Aplastic anemia can also happen without symptoms. however, at the point when present, its symptoms consist of:

  • Prolonged or regular infections
  • Easy or unexplained bruising
  • Bleeding from nose and gums
  • Continued bleeding from wounds or cuts
  • Rashes on skin
  • Fever


Symptoms of thalassemia in children can consist of:

  • Deformities in facial bones
  • Delayed development
  • Swelling of abdomen
  • Dark-colored urine

Diagnosis of Anemia In Children:

Since the condition of anemia is prevalent in kids, regular screening is performed by doctors. Anemia in kids is diagnosed with the following blood tests:

  • Test of Haemoglobin and hematocrit
  • Peripheral smear
  • Complete blood count (CBC)
  • Reticulocyte count

Blood tests might lead to a slight amount of pain, as the needle is to be inserted into a vein. It may also lead to some tiny swelling or bruising.

Based on the results, your kid may also be required to go through a bone marrow aspiration, biopsy, or both. The liquid or tissue that is taken is inspected for the size, quantity, and development of blood cells or strange cells.

Treatment of Anemia in Children:

Anemia in children’s treatment will rely upon your kid’s age, symptoms, and general wellbeing. It will also rely upon how critical the condition is. The therapy for anemia is dependent on its cause. Some types don’t need treatment, while some may require medication or surgery. In different cases, long-term treatment or blood transfusion might be required.

food rich in iron

  • Vitamin and mineral pills can be prescribed by the doctor.
  • Iron-insufficiency anemia and other healthful anemia types can be forestalled by ensuring that your youngster follows a consistent eating regimen. Remember to feed them foods that are rich in iron.
  • Great sources of food containing iron are lean meat, fish, poultry, egg yolks, tofu, and numerous different foods.
  • Conversation with a dietician or the pediatrician will help if your child only eats vegetables. They can prescribe foods to assist your kid with getting iron.
  • If your child is aged less than a year, don’t give them cow’s milk.

Children are always at a chance of developing anemia, principally because their heightened requirements for iron may not be sufficed if their diet is nutrition deficient. Indeed, even a low degree of anemia can influence your kid’s energy, focus, and capacity to learn. If your kid starts to display any signs or symptoms of anemia, make certain to tell your pediatrician. With prompt and proper treatment, your child will show signs of improvement soon enough.

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